Musicology: Late 18th Century

The outline that you find below has been a very helpful study guide to assist students using the book A History of Western Music. I strongly recommend this book. With its contents, art work, and media, it's just gorgeous!

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Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

  1. Haydn's Career
    1. Early life
      1. Born in Rohrau in the eastern part of Austria
      2. Sang as choirboy at the Cathedral of St.Stephen in Vienna
      3. Mastered counterpoint on his own by reading Fux's Gradus
      4. Rec'd lessons in composition from Nicola Porpora, famous It. composer and singing teacher
      5. 1758: becomes music director at the chapel of Count von Morzin
    2. Middle years
      1. 1761: enters the service of Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy, head of a wealthy Hungarian noble family and patron of the arts
      2. 1762: Nicholas Esterhazy succeeds his brother
      3. 1766: in residence at the estate of Esterhaza
        1. Estate had two theaters, one for opera and one for marionette plays
        2. Two large music rooms in the palace
        3. Haydn had a standing orchestra of about 25 players
        4. 2 operas and 2 long concerts perf. each week
        5. Daily chamber music
        6. prince played Baryton (large viola da gamba type inst.), so Haydn wrote 200 pieces for the inst.
      4. Esterhaza orchestra allowed Haydn to experiment and become original
      5. 1770s-1780s: Haydn fills many commissions from publ. and other patrons throughout Europe
      6. 1790: Nicholas dies, Haydn moves to Vienna
      7. London trips
        1. 1791-1792
        2. 1794-1795
          1. Conducts concerts
          2. wrote new works, London Symphonies
      8. Resumes service with the Esterhazy family (remains in Vienna) under Prince Nicholas II
        1. wrote 6 masses btw. 1796-1802
    3. Late years
      1. Late compositions
        1. Oratorios
          1. The Creation (1798)
          2. The Seasons (1801)
        2. String Quartet Op.103
          1. 2 mov't
          2. Composed 1802-1803
          3. Haydn's last composition
    4. Problems with Haydn Historiography
      1. No full and reliable catalog made during his lifetime
      2. No complete critical edition
      3. False attributions of many works
        1. Toy Symphony
          1. wrongly attributed to Haydn
          2. Believed to have been written by Leopold Mozart
      4. Compositional output
        1. 108 Symphonies
        2. 68 String Quartets
        3. Numerous chamber works
        4. 47 Piano Sonatas
        5. Masses, cantatas, songs and arias
        6. 26 operas (11 are lost)
        7. 4 oratorios
    5. Haydn's chief genres for which he is remembered
      1. String Quartet
      2. Symphony

Haydn's Instrumental Works

  1. Early Symphonies
    1. Symphonies 1-92 were written by 1789
      1. Most were written for the Esterhazy orchestra
      2. Nos.82-87 Paris Symphonies
        1. Commissioned for a 1785-86 concert series in Paris
      3. Nos.88-92 commissioned by private individuals
    2. Musical style
      1. Earliest symphonies use the early Classic three mov't form (derived from the Italian sinfonia)
        1. Allegro
        2. Andante (in the parallel minor or subdominant key)
        3. Minuet or a rapid giguelike mov't in 3/8 or 6/8 (Sym.9 & 19)
      2. Some follow the Baroque sonata da chiesa scheme
        1. Slow mov't-fast-slow-fast
        2. All mov't in same key
        3. Ex: Andante-Allegro-Minuet-Presto (Sym.21 & 22)
      3. Standard scheme
        1. Sym. No.3 in G (1762)
          1. Earliest use of Classic 4 mov't division
            1. Allegro
            2. Andante
            3. Minuet and Trio
            4. Allegro
          2. wind inst. (2 oboes and 2 hors) are fairly prominent
          3. Use of counterpoint
            1. Minuet is canonic
            2. Finale has fugal elements
      4. Minuet and Trio movement
        1. Becomes standard part of Symphony through Haydn
        2. ABA form
      5. Finale movements
        1. Haydn abandons the early 3 mov't scheme in order to have a more powerful finale
        2. Once he uses 4 mov't plans, Presto or Allegro finales in duple meter are used
          1. Sonata-rondo first used by Haydn in the finale to Sym.77 (1782)
    3. Symphonies 6,7, & 8
      1. Semiprogrammatic titles: Le Matin, Le Midi and Le Soir (6,7,8)
      2. 6 & 7 have short adagio introductions
    4. Experimental Symphonies of the 1760s
      1. No.31: uses 4 horns and a theme-and-variations finale
      2. No.26: incorporates a melody from an old plainsong Passion drama as thematic material in the 1st mov't and a liturgical chant in the 2nd
  2. The Symphonies of 1771-74
    1. Influence of Sturm und Drang (German literary mov't)
    2. Representative symphonies: Nos.44,45 & 47
    3. New developments
      1. Larger scale than previous symphonies
      2. Dramatic use of dynamics and sudden contrast
      3. Modulations are freer
    4. Slow movements
      1. Often in sonata form
      2. No.47 uses theme and variations
    5. Symphony No.45 'Farewell Symphony'
      1. Haydn writes it as a hint to the prince that musicians wanted to return to the city to see their families
      2. Presto finale breaks into and Adagio at which point players get up and leave until only two violins remain
      3. Other features of No.45
        1. 1st mov't introduces new theme in the development section (Haydn never uses this technique again)
        2. Sym. uses remote key of F# minor
    6. Use of monothematic sonata-form
  3. The Symphonies of 1774-88
    1. Haydn writing comic operas during this period, which affects his symphonic writing (making them lighter in character and more accessible)
    2. Use of Sonata-rondo in his finales (Sym.77)
    3. Paris Symphonies (1785-86)
      1. Culmination of Haydn's symphonic writing
      2. 1st movements of these symphonies use slow introductions
        1. Still monothematic
        2. Haydn prefers motivic dev. to contrasting themes
      3. wind instruments prominent in the minuets
    4. Nos.82-92
      1. Finales are either sonata-form or sonata-rondo
      2. Canon in the last mov't of No.88
  4. The London Symphonies
    1. Johann Peter Salomon
      1. Invites Haydn to compose six (later six more) symphonies for London
    2. Symphonies
      1. No.94, Surprise: fortissimo crash on a weak beat in the slow mov't
      2. No.100, Military: uses 'Turkish' instruments (triangle, cymbals, bass drum) and trumpet fanfare in the Allegretto
      3. No.101, Clock: ticking accompaniment in the Andante
    3. Orchestration
      1. London symphonies use trumpets and timpani
      2. Clarinets are used in all of the second set (except No.102)
      3. Trumpets and Cellos now have independent parts rather than doubling the horns and basses (respectively)
    4. Other musical elements
      1. Unconventtonal tonal scheme
        1. Mediant relationships utilized between mov't and Minuet and Trio (Sym.99 & 104)
  5. The Quartets of 1760-81
    1. Op.7 (ca.1770): set of 6 quartets (precedent for Mozart and Beethoven)
    2. Op.20: set of 6 quartets (1772)
      1. Cello used as a melodic and solo instrument
      2. Texture is totally free from the dependence on the basso continuo
      3. Counterpoint becomes increasingly important
      4. 3 finales are called 'fuga' as they use invertible counterpoint
      5. False recapitulation: Op.20, no.1: opening theme appears in the tonic key in the dev. section, but it is further developed before the recapitulation begins
    3. Op.33: set of 6 quartets (1781)
      1. Only first movements are sonata-forms
      2. Finales (except no.1) are rondos or variations
      3. Minuets are labeled 'scherzo' or 'scherzando'
  6. The Quartets of the 1780s
    1. Haydn's mature quartet style
    2. Compositional output
      1. Op.42 (1 quartet), 1785
      2. Op.50 (6 quartets) 'Prussian', 1787
      3. Op.54, 55 (3 each), 1788
      4. Op.64 (6 quartets), 1790
    3. Musical style
      1. Similar to the symphonic style except that 1st mov't do not use slow introductions
      2. Slow mov't cast as theme and variations
  7. The Last Quartets
    1. Compositional output
      1. Op.71, 74 (3 each), 1793
      2. Op.76 (6 quartets), 1797
      3. Op.77 (2), 1799
      4. Op.103 (2 mov't, unfinished), 1803
  8. Piano Sonatas
    1. Follow development of symphony and quartets
    2. Strongly influenced by CPE Bach

Haydn's Vocal Works

  1. Background
    1. During his life, Haydn regarded his operas and his oratorios as his most significant compositions
    2. Conducted 75 operas by other composers in Esterhaza between 1769-1790
    3. Haydn's operas
      1. 15 (maybe more) Italian operas
        1. Mostly drama giocoso
        2. 3 serious operas, including Armida (1784)
      2. 6 marionette operas
  2. Haydn's Church Music
    1. Compositional output
      1. Oratorio: The Return of Tobias (1774)
      2. Mass of Mariazell (1782)
    2. Symphonic style
  3. Haydn's Oratorios
    1. Haydn's trip to London in 1791 introduced him to the oratorios of Handel
    2. The Creation
      1. Based on the book of Genesis and Milton's Paradise Lost
      2. programmatic aspects
        1. Introduction: 'Depiction of Chaos'
          1. Uses Romantic harmonies that foreshadow Wagner
          2. Choral outburst on C-major chord at the words 'and there was light'
    3. The Seasons
      1. Based on James Thomson's eponymous poem
      2. Bears similarities to singspiel
    4. Influence of Handel

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

  1. Childhood and Early Youth
    1. Born in Salzburg, then situated within the territory of Bavaria
      1. City was a provincial center for the arts
    2. Leopold Mozart
      1. Member of archbishop's chapel
      2. wrote a treatise on violin playing
      3. Composer of some ability
    3. Early years spent touring Europe
      1. virtuouso on the violin, piano and organ
      2. Expert at sight-reading and improvisation
    4. Earliest compositions
      1. Minuets at age 6
      2. First symphony at age 9
      3. First oratorio at age 11
      4. First opera at age 12
    5. Wrote more than 600 compositions
      1. Thematic catalogue compiled by Koechel in 1862
    6. Extensive travel exposed Mozart to many musical styles
      1. Visited France, England, Holland, Italy, Austria and Germany
      2. Imitated and improvised using new models and techniques
  2. The Early Works
    1. Mozart's 'apprentice' or 'journeyman' years, completely under the tutelage of his father
    2. 1763-66: lengthy trips to Paris and London
    3. Influences
      1. Johann Schobert
        1. wrote harpsichord music
        2. Used fast, fiery arpeggiated figurations contrasted with quiet passages of thinner textures
      2. J.C. Bach
        1. Mozart meets him in London
        2. wrote keyboard, symphonic and operatic music
    4. La finta semplice (1768)
      1. Italian opera buffa composed in Vienna
    5. Bastien und Bastienne
      1. Comp. 1769
      2. Singspiel
    6. 1770-1773: Italian journeys
      1. 2 opera serie
        1. Mitridate (1770)
        2. Ascanio in Alba
      2. Mozart studies counterpoint with Padre Martini in Bologna
      3. Influenced by Italian Symphony: Sammartini
      4. Also influenced by Haydn

Mozart's First Masterworks

  1. Mozart and Haydn
    1. 1773: trip to Vienna brough Mozart into contact with Haydn's music
    2. Early Symphonies
      1. Symphony in G minor (K.183)
        1. product of the Sturm und Drang movement
        2. Mozart is less adventurous than Haydn in formal designs
        3. Mozart almost always uses contrasting lyrical second theme in sonata-allegro movements
  2. Piano and Violin Sonatas
    1. 1774-1781: Mozart chiefly resides in Salzburg
    2. 1777-79: travels to Munich, Augsburg, Mannheim and Paris
      1. Hopes to acquire a better position in Germany
      2. Mother dies in Paris in 1778
      3. works from this period
        1. Piano Sonatas, K.279-284, K.309-311, K.330-333
  3. Serenades
    1. Serenades and divertimentos
      1. written during the 1770s and 80s
      2. Composed for garden parties, serenades, weddings, home-concerts
      3. Musical style
        1. Chamber music for strings w/2 or more wind inst.
        2. 6-8 wind inst. in pairs (for outdoors)
        3. Symphonic or concerto-like scoring
    2. Eine kleine Nacthmusik (K.525)
      1. 5-movements
      2. Composed in 1787
    3. Salzburg Serenades (K.203, 204, 320)
      1. Concerto-like
      2. 2 or 3 mov't featuring a solo violin
  4. Violin Concertos
  5. Church Music
    1. Sacred music in the symphonic-operatic idiom, intermingled with fugues
    2. Coronation Mass (K.317)
    3. C minor Mass (K.427)
      1. Credo and Agnus Dei never completed
      2. wrote it as fulfillment of a vow at the time of his marriage in 1782
    4. Motet: Ave verum (K.618, 1791)
  6. Idomeneo
    1. Mozart's last important Salzburg work before he moved to Vienna
    2. First perf. in Munich, January 1781
    3. Opera seria
    4. Shows the influence of Gluck and the tragedie lyrique

The Vienna Period

  1. Historical Background
    1. Mozart decides, against the advice of Leopold, to quit the service of the Archbishop and move to Vienna
    2. Early years in Vienna were prosperous
      1. Die Entfuehrung aus dem Serail (1782) was successful
      2. Many students, commissions and concerts
    3. Viennese taste changed by the late 1780s and the public abandons Mozart
    4. Exposure to J.S. Bach
      1. Baron van Swieten
        1. Music enthusiast
        2. wrote the librettos of Haydn's last two oratorios
        3. Introduced Mozart to Bach
  2. The Haydn Quartets
    1. 6 quartets written in 1785 dedicated to Joseph Haydn
    2. String quartet overview
      1. Mozart's earlier quartets: K.168-173 (set of 6)
        1. Composed Vienna, 1773
        2. Influence by Haydn's Op.17 and Op.20
      2. Haydn's Op.33 (1781)
        1. Fully established technique of pervasive thematic dev.
        2. Complete equality of the four instruments
  3. Concertos for Piano and Orchestra
    1. Mozart writes 17 Piano Concertos
    2. All were written in order to provide brand-new works for concerts
    3. Popularity in Vienna can be gauged by the number of new concertos
      1. 1782-1783: 3
      2. 1783-1784: 4
      3. 1784-1785: 4
      4. 1785-1786: 3
      5. 1786-87 & 1787-88: 1 each
      6. 1791: last concerto (K.595)
  4. Operas
    1. After Idomeneo, Mozart wrote no other opera serie other than La clemenza di Tito (summer 1791)
    2. Singspiels
      1. Die Entfuehrung aus dem Serail (1782)
      2. Die Zauberflöte (1791)
    3. Italian operas
      1. Le nozze di Figaro (1786)
      2. Don Giovanni (1787)
        1. Drama giacosa
        2. Uses trombones
      3. Cosi fan tutte (1790)
      4. All 3 librettos were by Lorenzo da Ponte (1749-1838)

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