Musicology: 19th Century

The outline that you find below has been a very helpful study guide to assist students using the book A History of Western Music. I strongly recommend this book. With its contents, art work, and media, it's just gorgeous!

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The Piano

  1. Background
    1. Advances in 19th c. piano construction
      1. Fuller dynamic tone
      2. More expressive
    2. Schools of piano playing at the beginning of the 19th c.
      1. Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837)
        1. Mozart's pupil
        2. Style emphasizes clarity of texture and technique
      2. Beethoven
        1. Emaphasizes fullness of tone
        2. wide dynamic range
        3. Orchestral effects
        4. Dramatic execution
        5. Technical power
      3. Muzio Clementi
        1. Incorporates the two styles
        2. Gradus ad Parnassum (1817-1826)
          1. Collection of 100 etudes
    3. Schools of piano playing during the early 19th c.
      1. Emphasis on elegance, brightness and clarity:
        1. John Field (1782-1837)
          1. Pupil of Clementi
        2. Adolf von Henselt (1814-1899)
          1. Pupil of Hummel
      2. Emphasis on showmanship and virtuosity
        1. Friedrich Kalkbrenner (1785-1849)
        2. Sigismund Thalberg (1829-1869)
        3. Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869)
      3. Emphasis on interpretation and technical skill
        1. Franz Liszt
        2. Anton Rubinstein (1829-1894)
        3. Hans von Bulow (1830-1894)
        4. Karl Tausig (1841-1871)
      4. Pianists and composers adhering to neither extreme
        1. Schubert
        2. Schumann
        3. Mendelssohn
        4. Brahms
        5. Clara Schumann
    4. Romantic genres of piano music
      1. Short works
        1. Dance pieces
        2. Lyrical pieces
        3. Short character pieces
      2. Long works
        1. Concertos
        2. Variations
        3. Fantasias
        4. Sonatas

Music for Piano

  1. The Early Romantic Composers
    1. Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826)
      1. Four sonatas
      2. Two concertos
      3. Concertstuck in F minor for piano and orchestra (1821)
      4. Invitation to the Dance (1819)
    2. Bohemian composers
      1. Jan Ladislav Dussek
      2. Jan Vaclav Tomasek (1774-1850)
      3. Jan Hugo Vorisek (1791-1825)
  2. Franz Schubert
    1. Short pieces
      1. Marches
      2. Dances
      3. waltzes
      4. "impromptus" and "moment musical"
        1. Titles given by Schubert's composers
    2. Large pieces
      1. 11 sonatas
      2. Fantasia in C major (1822)
        1. Based on a theme adapted from the song "Der Wanderer"
      3. Duets
        1. Grand Duo
        2. Fantasia in F minor
        3. Rondo in A major
    3. Piano groups
      1. Moments musicaux
      2. 8 Impromptus
    4. Schubert's musical style
      1. More influenced by Haydn and Mozart than by Beethoven
      2. Lyric rather than dramatic
      3. Relies on expansive melodies rather than motivic development
  3. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy
    1. Large pieces
      1. Two concertos
      2. Three sonatas
      3. Preludes and fugues
      4. Variations and fantasias
    2. Songs without words
      1. 48 short pieces issued at intervals in 6 books
      2. Titles were supplied by the publishers
  4. Robert Schumann
    1. Neue Zeitschrift f├╝r Musik
      1. Leipzig journal of music
      2. Schumann was editor from 1834-1844
      3. Essays introduced a number of important composers: Chopin, Brahmns and the instrumental music of Schubert
    2. Piano works
      1. Op.1-Op.23: are all piano pieces
      2. Numerous piano 'cycles'
        1. Papillons
        2. Carnaval
        3. Kindeerscenen
        4. Kreisleriana
        5. Fantasiest├╝cke
        6. Novelletten
      3. Schumann's use of extramusical ideas
        1. Titled pieces within his cycles
        2. Davidsbund
          1. Imaginary society of characters found in Schumann's writings
          2. Florestan: the impulsive revolutionary
          3. Eusebius: the youthful dreamer
          4. Raro: the wise mature master
  5. Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)
    1. Composed almost exclusively for the piano
    2. Principal works
      1. 2 concertos
      2. 3 sonatas
      3. 27 etudes
      4. 4 scherzos
      5. 4 ballades
      6. 24 preludes
      7. 3 impromptus
      8. 19 nocturnes
      9. waltzes, mazurkas and polonaises
      10. Barcarolle in F#, Berceuse in Db, Fantasia in F min.
    3. Born in Poland, lived from 1831-1849 in Paris
      1. Infused his music with 'Polish' characteristics
        1. One of the earliest examples of a 'national' idiom
        2. Used the 'Lydian' raised fourth, characteristic of Polish folk music in his writing
    4. Nocturnes
      1. John Field (student of Clementi) was the first to use the designation 'nocturne'
    5. Etudes
  6. Franz Liszt
    1. Background
      1. Born in Hungary
      2. Studied in Vienna under Carl Czerny
      3. Spent much of his early years through 1848 in Paris
      4. 1848-1861: he was cout music director at Weimar
        1. Encouraged new music performances
        2. Conducted Wagner's 'Lohengrin' in 1850
      5. 1861-1870: Liszt resided chiefly in Rome
    2. Eclectic musical style
      1. Hungarian heritage in the form of national melodies and his fiery and impulsive musical temperament
      2. Early Viennese training
      3. Influence of Parisian literary Romanticism and the ideal of program music as represented by Berlioz
      4. Piano style based on Chopin's
      5. Virtuosic style (Liszt was influenced by Paganini)
    3. Musical Output
      1. Large portion of transcriptions and arrangements
        1. Sources
          1. Schubert songs
          2. Berlioz and Beethoven's symphonies
          3. Bach's organ fugues
          4. Excerpts from Wagner's music dramas
        2. Liszt transforms piano technique by bringing orchestral idioms to the instrument
      2. Compositions using national tunes
        1. Hungarian Rhapsodies
      3. 2 concertos
      4. Hungarian Fantasia
      5. Totentanz
      6. Transcendental Etudes
        1. Set of 12 studies publ. In 1826
        2. Revised in 1839
      7. Transcriptions of Paganini caprices
      8. Sonata in B minor (1853)
        1. Single extended mov't
        2. Four themes are worked out in a free rhapsodic fashion
        3. Prominent use of the augmented triad
      9. Fantasia and Fugue (1850)
        1. Organ work based on a chorale theme from a Meyerbeer opera
  7. Johannes Brahms
    1. Brahms' models are Schumann and Beethoven
    2. Musical characteristics
      1. Fullness of sonority
      2. Broken-chord figuration
      3. Frequent doubling of the melodic line in octaves, thirds, sixths
      4. Cross rhythms
    3. Musical output
      1. 2 concertos
      2. 3 sonatas
      3. Several variation sets
      4. 35 short pieces
        1. Ballades
        2. Rhapsodies
        3. Capriccios
        4. Intermezzos
    4. Brahms utilizes Classical principles of construction
      1. Brahms avoids the descriptive titles used by Schumann and Liszt
      2. Regarded as a 'conservative'
  8. Other Composers
    1. Modest Musorgsky
      1. Pictures at an Exhibition (1874)
    2. Balakirev
      1. Islamey
      2. Sonata in Bb minor
    3. Cesar Franck
      1. Prelude, Chorale and Fugue (1884)
      2. Prelude, Aria, and Finale (1887)
      3. Symphonic Variations for piano and orchestra (1885)

Chamber Music

  1. Background
    1. Medium of chamber music not congenial to many Romantic composers
      1. Lacked the intimate personal expressiveness of the solo piano piece of Lied or the glowing colors and powerful sound of orchestral music
      2. Arch-Romantics (Berlioz, Liszt, Wagner) contribute little or nothing to the genre
    2. Composers closely aligned with the Classical tradition are most at home with chamber music
      1. Schubert
      2. Brahms
      3. Mendelssohn and Schumann (to a lesser degree)
  2. Schubert's Chamber Music
    1. The Trout Quintet for piano and strings (1819)
      1. Includes a set of variations before the finale based on his song 'Die Forelle'
    2. Quartet in D minor (1824-1826)
      1. 2nd mov't is a set of variations on the song 'Death and the Maiden'
    3. String Quintet in C major (1828)
      1. Additional instrument (as in Boccherini quartets) is a violincello
  3. Mendelssohn's Chamber Music
    1. Output
      1. 6 string quartets
      2. 2 quintets
      3. Octet
      4. Sextet for piano and strings
      5. 2 piano trios
      6. Sonata for piano and violin
      7. 2 sonatas for piano and cello
  4. Schumann's Chamber Music
    1. 1842 was Scumann's chief year of chamber composition
      1. 3 string quartets
      2. A piano quartet
      3. A piano quiintet
  5. Brahms' Chamber Music
    1. Brahms is the most important composer of chamber music in the 19th c.
      1. Successor to Beethoven in the string quartet and in the symphony
    2. Compositional output
      1. Piano Trio in B (Op.8, 1854)
      2. 2 String sextets
      3. 2 Piano quartets
      4. Trio for piano, violin and Waldhorn
  6. Cesar Franck's Chamber Music
    1. Pioneer of modern Franch chamber music
    2. Output
      1. Piano Quintet in F minor (1879)
      2. String Quartet in D major (1889)
      3. Violin Sonata in A major (1886)

Music for Orchestra

  1. Background
    1. Two roads of symphonic development (both emanate from Beethoven)
      1. 'Absolute' music in standard classical forms as manifest in Beethoven's 4th, 7th and 8th symphonies
      2. 'Programmatic' music as developing from Beethoven's 5th, 6th and 9th symphonies
  2. Schubert's Symphonies
    1. Two most significant symphonies
      1. Unfinished Symphony in B minor (1822)
        1. Often described as the first truly 'Romantic' symphony
        2. Schubert's use of orchestral color
          1. Unison theme for two horns
          2. Pianissimo trombones in the codetta of the 1st mov't
      2. C Major Symphony (1828)
  3. Mendelssohn's Symphonies
    1. Romantic landscape symphonies
      1. Italian (1833)
      2. Scotch (1842)
    2. Midsummer Night's Dream
      1. Overture written when he was 17
      2. 17 years later, he writes additional incidental music for a dramatic production of the play
  4. Schumann's Symphonies
    1. Schumann's 'Symphony' year of 1841
      1. 1840 Schumann's Liderjahr
      2. 1842 Schumann's Chamber music year
    2. Spring Symphony in Bb major (1841)
  5. Berlioz's Symphonies
    1. Symphonie fantastique (1830)
      1. A musical drama without words
      2. Idee fixe
        1. Recurrence of the opening theme of the first Allgro
        2. Musical moods are created by orchestral texture
    2. Harold in Italy (1834)
    3. Romeo and Juliet (1839)
    4. Damnation of Faust (1864)
  6. Liszt's Symphonic Poems
    1. Liszt was the leading composer of program music after Berlioz
    2. Output: 12 symphonic poems
      1. Form
        1. Nonconventional
        2. Use of continuous forms with various sections
      2. Les Preludes
      3. Orpheus
      4. Hamlet
    3. Symphonies
      1. Faust Symphony
        1. Consists of 3 mov't
          1. Faust
          2. Grethcen
          3. Mephistopheles
      2. Dante Symphony
  7. Brahms' Symphonies
    1. First Symphony in C minor
      1. written in 1876
      2. Use of Classical forms
        1. Standard 4 mov't scheme
        2. Non-programmatic
  8. Other important symphonists
    1. Cesar Franck
    2. Anton Bruckner
    3. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
    4. Anton Dvorak

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